Atiyah ibn Sa'd

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Atiyah ibn Sa'd
Died111 AH/729 CE[1]
EraMedieval era

Atiyah ibn Sa'd ibn Junādah al‐'Awfi (Arabic: عطية بن سعد بن جنادة‎) [d. 729][1] was an early proto-Shiite traditionist. He is regarded as a reliable narrator of hadith.

Family background[edit]

Atiyah belonged to the Judaila family of the tribe known as Qays and his patronymic appellation was Abdul Hasan according to al-Tabari. Atiyah's mother was Greek.[2] Some accounts suggest that she was a Roman slave girl.[citation needed]

Sa'd bin Junadah i.e. the father of Atiyah is reported to have approached Ali, the fourth caliph and the cousin of the prophet Mohammed, and asked him to name him. Ali said: "He is an atiyah (Arabic for gift) of Allah". Thus he was named Atiyah.

Lifetime and Legacy[edit]

Arba'een Walk[edit]

After the battle of Karbala, the companion of Prophet Muhammad, Jabir ibn Abdullah Al-Ansari and his disciple Atiyah ibn Sa'd were the first pilgrims to visit the grave of Hussain ibn Ali in Karbala. Hearing the news of what had happened, they left Medina to pay homage and reached Karbala on the 20th of the Islamic month of Safar.[3][unreliable source?] This event has evolved into a religious pilgrimage, known as the Arba'een, attended by millions of Muslims every year.[4]

Revolt of Al-Ash'ath[edit]

Atiyah supported the revolt of Al-Ash'ath and his campaign against al-Hajjāj, the Umayyad viceroy of Iraq under Caliph Al-Walid I. The revolt was suppressed and Al-Ash’ath was killed in 85 AH. after which Atiyah fled to Fars.[2] Al-Hajjāj ordered Muhammad bin Qasim then governor of Fars, to summon Atiyah and demand him to curse Ali, which was a practice used by the Umayyads as a test of loyalty.[5][6] If Atiyah refused, he was to be flogged four hundred times and his head and beard shaved as humiliation.[2][7] Al-Tabari narrates that Atiyah refused to curse Ali and he was punished.[5]

Conquest of Sind[edit]

Atiyah joined the invasion force of Muhammad bin Qasim in his campaign on Sind. According to Chachnama, he was the commander of the right wing of bin Qasim's army after the conquest of Armabil (modern Bela). Al-Tabari, Ibn Sa'ad and Ibn Hajar give accounts of Atiyah's sojourn in Sind.[1][8]

Khorasan[edit]

Al-Tabari's biography states that Atiyah moved to Khorasan and stayed there during the governorship of Qutayba ibn Muslim. After the accession of Yazid II and the appointment of Umar ibn Hubayra as the Governor of Iraq (in 103 AH / 721–722 CE), he sought permission to return to Iraq. He then moved to Kufa lived there until his death in 111 AH / 729 CE.[2]

Scholarly Impact[edit]

Atiyah ibn Sa'd is regarded as a reliable transmitter of Prophetic narrations, hadith, by Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani [7] and al-Tabari[5]. In addition, he was a great exegete of the Qur'an and wrote a commentary on it in five volumes.[3][unreliable source?] He was a student of the great Sahaba Abdullah ibn Abbas and Jabir ibn Abd Allah al-Ansari.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c MacLean 1989, pp. 99–100.
  2. ^ a b c d Landau-Tasseron, Ella (1988), History of al-Tabari Vol. 39, The: Biographies of the Prophet's Companions and Their Successors, SUNY Press, pp. 228–229, ISBN 978-1-4384-0998-6
  3. ^ a b Ibrahim Ayati, "A Probe into the History of Ashura", Ch. 49, Appendix - I, Lulu Press Inc. (2014).
  4. ^ Husein, Umme-Salma Mujtaba (2018), A Phenomenological Study of Arbaeen Foot Pilgrimage in Iraq, Elsevier, pp. 9–19
  5. ^ a b c MacLean 1989, p. 126.
  6. ^ Landau-Tasseron, Ella (1988), History of al-Tabari Vol. 39, The: Biographies of the Prophet's Companions and Their Successors, SUNY Press, p. 228, note 992, ISBN 978-1-4384-0998-6: "Here the curse is used as a test of loyalty to the Umayyads."
  7. ^ a b Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani, "Tahdhib al-Tahdhib", Volume 7, page 226, Narrator no. 413.
  8. ^ R. S. Sharma; K. M. Shrimali, eds. (2008) [first published 1957], A Comprehensive History of India, Vol. 4, Part 2, Indian History Congress / People's Publishing House, p. 173: "Apart from Musa b. Yaqub Thaqafi..., there were a number of individuals who came to Sindh in the wake of the Umayyad conquest, but chose not to settle in the region. One such person was 'Atiyah b. Sad al-Awfi, the renowned Shiite traditionalist."

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

  • Ayati, Ibrahim. A Probe Into the History of Ashura. Chapter 48. Published by: Islamic Seminary Publications, Karachi, Pakistan. Available online